PCORI Integrated Care (IC) Models for Patient-Centered Outcomes

Clinical Trial ID: NCT03451630

Description

Multiple chronic conditions (MCC) are widely recognized as the U.S. public health challenge of the 21st century. These physical and behavioral health conditions take a large toll on those suffering from the diseases, including many who are publicly insured, as well as caregivers and society. While evidence-based integrated care models can improve outcomes for individuals with MCC, such models have not yet been widely implemented. Insurance providers/payers have innovative system features that can be used to deploy these models; however, the investigators do not yet know which of these features can best help to improve outcomes for individuals with MCC in general or high-need subgroups in particular. As a result, patients lack information to make important decisions about their health and health care, and system-level decision makers face ongoing challenges in effectively and efficiently supporting those with MCC. This real-world study will provide useful information about available options for supporting individuals with MCC. Building on existing integrated care efforts, the investigators will enroll 1,662 adults with MCC at risk for repeated hospitalizations and assess the impact of three payer-led options (High-Touch, High-Tech, Usual Care) on patient-centered outcomes, namely patient activation in health care, health status, and subsequent re-hospitalization. The investigators will also determine which option works best for whom under what circumstances by gathering information directly from individuals with MCC through self-report questionnaires, health care use data, and interviews.

Study aims. Given the documented need for valuable information about system-level features that can be used to effectively and efficiently support adults in living well with MCC, this study is designed to achieve the following aims: Aim 1: Compare the effectiveness of High-Touch, High-Tech, and Usual Care on primary outcomes including hospital readmission, health status, and patient activation, and on several secondary outcomes including functional status, quality of life, care satisfaction, emergent care use, engagement in primary, specialty, and mental health care, and gaps in care. Aim 2: Examine the differential effects of the interventions for patient subgroups, based on age, race, illness complexity, and comorbid behavioral health conditions to evaluate heterogeneity of treatment effects (HTE) and determine for whom and in what circumstances the interventions are most effective. Aim 3: Examine perceived barriers and facilitators to efficient and effective implementation of High-Touch and High-Tech interventions for delivering evidence-based integrated care. An individual-level randomized design along with a pragmatic, mixed-methods approach to compare system-level features for delivering evidence-based components of integrated care for Medicaid or dual-eligible adult members with MCC who reside in in Western, Central, or Eastern PA and are at high risk for rehospitalization has been selected for this study. This design, based on significant input from patient stakeholders and Drs. Kraemer (Scientific Co-I; health services researcher) and Landsittel (Co-I; biostatistician/CER expert), accords fully with the PCORI Methodology Standards.91. Intervention effectiveness will be determined by examining the differential impact on outcomes that are most meaningful to patients in our target population and those delivering their care. The scope and duration of the study interventions and evaluation are sufficient to measure change in patient-centered outcomes. Upon receipt of an award, the evaluation and analytics plan described within this section will be translated into a formal study protocol to be vetted again for content and process with patient partners and other stakeholders and approved by the Human Research Protection Office (HRPO). High-Touch, High-Tech, and Usual Care will serve as the comparators for this study. Usual Care follows standardized procedures for patient engagement including when a patient is either hospitalized or transitioning from the hospital setting into ambulatory care for follow-up and condition management. Due to resources and other limitations, not all patients who are eligible for High-Touch/High-Tech enroll in these programs. Thus, the addition of the Usual Care arm will allow for a less intensive model to be examined and targeted to appropriate patient populations. For Aims 1 and 2, an individual, stratified randomized trial design was selected to randomly assign each enrollee to one of the three interventions arms, minimizing and balancing for confounding variables. Individual-level randomization was selected as opposed to cluster randomization at a system level (e.g., practice-, hospital-level) because the interventions are delivered by a single payer and are not subject to within-practice contamination. Based on valuable system-level stakeholder feedback, an unequal randomization ratio of 2:2:1 for High-Touch, High-Tech, and Usual Care, respectively, was utilized. While the less resource intensive Usual Care may, in fact, improve meaningful outcomes for certain patient subgroups, the health care system has invested heavily in High-Touch and High-Tech as evidence-based solutions for chronic disease care. Additionally, stakeholders have indicated that they would like as many participants as possible to have a fully integrated care experience offered by High-Touch/High-Tech and would like to limit enrollment into Usual Care. The investigators will use a mixed-methods approach that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative data. The addition of qualitative data collection and analyses in Aim 3 will permit more comprehensive understanding of patient and staff experiences with the interventions and results will aide in dissemination of study findings in a manner that is most consistent with patient and other stakeholder perceptions and experiences. The overall, four-year study timeline includes three phases: Pre-Intervention (months 1-6), Intervention and Data Collection (months 7-40), and Data Analysis and Reporting (months 41-48). The study population includes Medicaid or dual-eligible (Medicare-Medicaid) adults age 21 years and older with MCC, including at least one physical health condition (e.g., cardiovascular disease, hypertension, COPD, diabetes) and at least one additional physical or behavioral health condition (e.g., depression, serious mental illness, substance abuse disorder) and at least one hospital discharge in the previous 30 days. These individuals will reside in PA and will be insured through physical and/or behavioral health payers within the UPMC Insurance Services Division (ISD). In addition, these individuals will have several comorbidities, will have been prescribed several medications, and/or will be predicted future high health care utilizers. Assuming a 75% enrollment rate, 1,662 individuals will be randomized to either High-Tech (n=667), High-Touch (n=667) or Usual Care (n=328). The study will use web-based randomization to one of the three interventions for those individuals who consent to participate in the study. Once a member of the interdisciplinary care team (ICT) determines eligibility, he or she will enter key identification information, and the system will then generate a Study ID (numeric identification number) along with assignment to an intervention arm. Randomization will be stratified by gender, type of insurance (Medicaid or Medicare-Medicaid), and technology/digital literacy, which will be assessed at time of enrollment and before randomization, to ensure that intervention arms are balanced with respect to these important variables. Within each stratum, random block sizes of 5 and 10 will be used to maximize balance between intervention groups while minimizing the ability to unmask investigators to the next treatment assignment, triggering an automated alert to ICT staff regarding which intervention to implement for each participant and documented accordingly in HealthPlaNET, UPMC ISD's integrated health management software program. If a participant is unwilling to be randomized, they will be excluded from the study. Each patient is assigned a nurse Clinical Care Manager (CCM) or a licensed social worker, and a pharmacist who provide comprehensive services for the duration of intervention implementation. Bilingual ICT staff will be available to support native Spanish speaking participants. CCMs are currently employed to develop and implement care plans with patients, coordinate healthcare services, work with the pharmacist to manage patient's medications, make home visits, and deliver telehealth care and remote monitoring. Social workers are responsible for each patient's biopsychosocial needs assessment, meeting with patients in their homes, hospitals and provider offices, and conducting psychosocial status reviews. Pharmacists conduct medication reconciliations for all patients and share findings about potential drug interactions or medication adjustments with CCMs, patients, and providers as indicated. Each ICT has a caseload of up to fifty patients and all staff members meet monthly to review progress for all individuals participating in the interventions. Staff members undergo extensive in-person and web-based module training to increase uniformity in patient engagement and intervention implementation. The work of Peggy Swarbrick of Rutgers and the Collaborative Support Programs of New Jersey, Inc. provides the basis of the wellness coaching and health navigation training that teaches all ICT staff how to utilize motivational interviewing to identify and address barriers and facilitators related to disease self-management and holistic health. Additional training includes modules related to: medication reconciliations, common physical/behavioral health conditions, strategies to engage eligible patients, documentation protocols, trauma-informed care, substance use, and harm reduction. SAMHSA's 8 Dimensions of Wellness (physical, emotional, environmental, social, financial, occupational, spiritual, and intellectual) are considered with all intervention-related activities to ensure that whole health and wellness are taken into account when assessing each patient's unique needs. Patients in both High-Touch and High-Tech will experience similar procedures at the start of their participation. A CCM or social worker engages patients in a face-to-face assessment in the hospital or in a community setting to dialogue about the social determinants affecting continued hospital readmissions and emergency department use. At the completion of the assessment, the initial home visit is scheduled and medication reconciliation is ordered. Individuals randomized to Usual Care will be provided with the transitional care services. High-Touch and High-Tech interventions are provided for approximately four months following hospitalization, and Usual Care is approximately one month.


Criteria

Inclusion Criteria: Enrollment Phase I Inclusion Criteria: 1. Medicaid or dual-eligible (Medicare-Medicaid) adults age 21 years and older with Multiple Chronic Conditions (MCC). 2. Have at least one physical health condition (e.g., cardiovascular disease, hypertension, COPD, diabetes). 3. Have at least one additional physical or behavioral health condition (e.g., depression, serious mental illness, substance abuse disorder). 4. Reside in Western, Central, or Eastern Pennsylvania. 5. Be insured through physical and/or behavioral health payers within the UPMC ISD. 6. Are identified as members with consistently high or rising resource utilization (which takes into account avoidable hospital readmissions, emergency department usage, and high cost, among other utilization-related variables). Enrollment Phase II Inclusion Criteria: 1. Medicaid or dual-eligible (Medicare-Medicaid) adults age 21 years and older with Multiple Chronic Conditions (MCC). 2. Have at least one physical health condition (e.g., cardiovascular disease, hypertension, COPD, diabetes). 3. Have at least one additional physical or behavioral health condition (e.g., depression, serious mental illness, substance abuse disorder). 4. Reside in Western, Central, or Eastern Pennsylvania. 5. Be insured through physical and/or behavioral health payers within the UPMC ISD. 6. ) Individuals will have several comorbidities, will have been prescribed several medications, and/or will be predicted future high health care utilizers. 7. Must have at least one hospital discharge within 30 days of enrollment. Exclusion Criteria: Individuals who are pregnant, in skilled nursing facilities, on hemodialysis for kidney disease, in active cancer treatment, or unable to operate a smart phone due to reasons of literacy, vision or dexterity will be excluded from the study.

  • Start Date

    2018-04-23

  • Last Updated

    2018-10-14

  • Sponsor

    Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute

  • Condition Name

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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